How should one implement and bring about changes in one’s workplace or company? Some say the top-down approach is good while others feel that the bottom-up approach is best.
However,according to the contingency school, the choice of an appropriate strategy and the implementation diagnosis consist of assessing eight independent variables or factors in the organizations.
- Available time (short / long)
- Clarity of the need for change (clear to all / clear to few)
- Organization size (small / large)
- Effects of existing controls and incentives (encourage initiative / encourage focus)
- Organizational concentration of relevant knowledge (concentrated at top / concentrated at bottom)
- Expectations of people regarding involvement in implementation (none / extensive)
- Potential resistance (small / great)
- Total power base of change agent (great / small)
Thus, for example, if there is very little time variable, the crisis or need for change is clear to all, if it is a small organization and so on, then the appropriate change strategy is top-down, directive and fast; while if clarity for need to change is not apparent and the organization size is relatively large, then the appropriate change strategy would needs be bottom – up.